Arthritis is a very common condition affecting any number of joints in the body. There are different types of arthritis and being able to determine what type you may be suffering from is important to find treatment options. Two common types of arthritis seen and treated in a physical therapy clinic are (definitions referenced from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons):

  • Osteoarthritis: degeneration of a joint as a “result from overuse, trauma, or degeneration of the joint cartilage that takes place with age”
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis: degeneration of a joint due to the body’s immune system attacking the joint

PTCOP physical therapists work closely with your physicians to determine the best type of treatment based on your specific type of arthritis and your goals. Treatment can include multiple interventions such as therapeutic exercises, functional task training, manual therapy, aquatic therapy, gait training, and many more options.

For more information regarding arthritis, visit the “OrthoInfo” page of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons at


Aquatic therapy is a treatment venue that allows for better tolerance to exercise and general movement than in traditional, land-based treatment venues. The properties of water help to reduce stress on the joints and soft tissue structures of the body. This reduction in stress on the body allows for greater freedom of movement as well as leads to improvement of initiating ROM and strengthening activities that would be much more difficult out of the water. Additionally, the buoyancy of water accommodates for consistent resistance to help with the restoration of normal walking, strength, and movement patterns.

At PTCOP, we have two specially trained therapists who treat patients with multiple medical conditions in our aquatic therapy program. Whether you are dealing with low back pain, neck pain, arthritis, muscle strains, general weakness, or potentially any other muscular or neurological system condition, aquatic therapy may be right for you.


Low back pain is one of the most common conditions for which patients seek physical therapy. Emerging research is showing that low back pain is NOT a condition that can be treated the same for each patient. To best treat low back pain, research shows that classifying patients into groups based on their symptoms and clinical findings in the examination is the best predictor of improvement with treatment.

PTCOP physical therapists use an integrated approach of mechanical movement patterns and manual therapy to classify clinical symptoms to find the best, individualized treatment program. Our approach includes The McKenzie Method® of Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy® (MDT) as well as other forms of manual therapy assessment. Based on the patient’s response to the assessment, a treatment program is developed. The initial phase of the treatment program is 100% patient-driven with instruction and feedback from the therapist. Depending on the amount of improvement, the program is progressed with the implementation of manual therapy treatments as needed. This method has proven to be very successful at not only improving patient outcomes but also to reduce the overall costs of medical care related to low back pain.

The key to overcoming low back pain is being properly assessed and then directed into the correct path of treatment.

For more information on low back pain and physical therapy, visit Physical Therapist’s Guide to Low Back Pain


The Physical Therapy Clinic of Paris is a Licensed WorkSTEPS Provider. WorkSTEPS is the leading provider of functional employment testing in the nation. Services of this system provided through PTCOP include Job Analyses, Post-Offer Comprehensive Testing, Fit-For-Duty Testing, and Functional Capacity Evaluations. Every employment decision poses potential risks, and WorkSTEPS was developed to create a medically safe, legally compliant, scientific, and objective means of matching a worker’s functional capabilities with the essential functions of the job. Employers utilizing this system are experiencing a 50% reduction of work injuries in the first year of implementation with continued reductions in the second and third years.

Post-Offer Comprehensive Testing
Post-Offer Comprehensive Testing is a 1.5-hour test. Medical questions and several medical tests are included to objectively quantify pre-existing conditions and cumulative traumas to determine their effect upon “significant and impending” risk as it relates to the position in question.

Post-Employment Fit-For-Duty
Post-Employment Fit-For-Duty Testing is a 1.0-hour test administered to existing employees under several circumstances specifically addressed in the Technical Assistance Manual. The Test may be administered on a voluntary basis, at specific intervals scheduled by the employer, or on an individual basis if the employee demonstrates “evidence of problems related to the job performance of safety” (TAM V1-12). The test is used to classify employees according to risk and then implement prevention strategies to lower susceptibility to injury. Work conditioning, accommodations, and other options are made available to the employer-based up results.

Functional Capacity Evaluations
The FCE is a medical test to measure an employee’s function post-injury. The WorkSTEPS FCE is designed to follow the same pre-injury test protocols of the employment test to compare baseline data, document existing impairments, prove consistency, and create realistic objective treatment goals and return to work recommendations. The WorkSTEPS FCE is also automated and includes criteria to evaluate symptom magnification, inappropriate illness behavior, and validity of performance.

For more information on WorkSTEPS, visit

Industrial Rehabilitation
PTCOP also offers work conditioning for employees working toward return to work after an injury. After completing standard physical therapy care, patients looking to return to work will usually transition to this program to help with tolerance to normal work activities. The program is designed to incorporate work related activities as well as general activity tolerance activities to improve tolerance toward return to normal job duties.


Manual therapy is a sub-specialty of orthopedic physical therapy that focuses on skilled and specific “hands-on” treatment of many orthopedic conditions. These treatment techniques include, but are not limited to, joint mobilization/manipulation, soft tissue mobilization, trigger point therapy, muscle energy, dry needling, and many other forms.

Emerging research is demonstrating that a multi-component program integrating manual therapy, exercise, and other forms of physical therapy treatment is superior to programs that only include one form of treatment. At the Physical Therapy Clinic of Paris, we have many clinicians with specialty training in different manual therapy techniques including advanced fellowship training.

While there are many avenues to train in the manual therapy sub-specialty field, the organization that governs most of these programs is the American Academy of Orthopedic Manual Physical Therapists. Recognition as an expert clinician in manual therapy is achieved through fellowship training. All clinicians who complete fellowship training are then recognized as Fellows of the American Academy of Orthopedic Manual Physical Therapists (FAAOMPT).

For more information on manual therapy as a part of the physical therapy profession and certification/fellowship training, visit the website for the American Academy of Orthopedic Manual Physical Therapists at


Neck pain and headaches are common conditions seen in physical therapy clinics. They can be very debilitating when they affect normal life activities as well as work production.

While they do not always associate with each other, several different types of headaches can be attributed to the neck. Similar to when the low back refers pain into the buttocks or legs, the neck can refer pain into the head region, shoulders, and arms. Some of the classifications of headaches as determined by the International Headache Society are:

  • Tension-type
  • Migraine and Cluster
  • Secondary Headaches from an underlying condition such as fever, infectious disease, sinus disorder, or in rare cases, a tumor or more serious illness
  • Cranial neuralgias, facial pain, and other headaches

While there are multiple types of headaches, it is important to remember that most headaches are related to non-serious conditions that can be treated effectively when they are recognized correctly.

As with low back pain, neck pain cannot be treated the same for each patient. The important factor in starting a treatment plan for neck pain and headaches is to perform a competent, thorough assessment. PTCOP physical therapists use an integrative system of assessment using The McKenzie Method® of Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy® (MDT) and other forms of manual therapy treatment as needed. This integrative approach of exercise and manual therapy has been shown by research to be superior to just one treatment regime alone. Again, the key is to be assessed correctly. The assessment will direct the course of treatment.

For more information regarding neck pain and headaches as related to physical therapy, visit Physical Therapist’s Guide to Headaches


The Physical Therapy Clinic of Paris is ready to meet any and all of your needs for general orthopedic rehabilitation. When surgery or other medical treatment is not needed or warranted, physical therapy can still help. Our physical therapists evaluate and treat patients with a multitude of orthopedic related impairments such as:

  • Sprains/Strains
  • Tendinitis
  • Bursitis
  • Joint and Soft Tissue Contractures
  • Edema/Swelling
  • General Weakness
  • Fall Prevention/Balance
  • Postural Training
  • Body Mechanics Training
  • Ergonomic Assessments
  • and many more

The Physical Therapy Clinic of Paris has a long-standing history of caring for the citizens of our community, and we embrace the privilege to help you with any needs you may have. The above list is by no means comprehensive; so if you have any potential issues where physical therapy may assist, please feel free to contact us.


Physical therapists at the Physical Therapy Clinic of Paris have a long history of experience caring for patients who have undergone surgery. When your condition has reached the level of requiring surgery, we are happy to assist you with reaching your goals of a normal life again. We work closely with your surgeon to make sure you are receiving the most appropriate, safe, and beneficial post-surgical care possible. While we treat patients after multiple different types of surgery, these are examples of the most common seen in the clinic:

  • Knee Procedures
    • Total Knee Arthroplasty/Replacement (TKA)
    • Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction (ACLR)
    • Menisectomy
    • Meniscus Repair
    • Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction (PCLR)
    • Arthroscopic Procedures
    • Open Reduction/Internal Fixation Procedures (ORIF)
  • Shoulder Procedure
    • Rotator Cuff Repair
    • Labral Repair
    • Total Shoulder Arthroplasty/Replacement (TSA)
    • Subacromial Decompression (SAD)
    • Biceps Tendon Repair
    • Open Reduction/Internal Fixation Procedures (ORIF)
  • Hip Procedures
    • Total Hip Arthroplasty/Replacement (THA)
    • Labral Repair
    • Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty
    • Open Reduction/Internal Fixation Procedures (ORIF)
  • Spine Procedures
    • Decompression
    • Laminectomy
    • Fusion
  • Ankle/Foot Procedures
    • Tendon/Ligament Reconstruction
    • Open Reduction/Internal Fixation Procedures (ORIF)
  •  Elbow/Wrist/Hand Procedures
    • Carpal Tunnel Release
    • Open Reduction/Internal Fixation Procedures (ORIF)

This list is completely limited to the most common procedures seen in the clinic. Feel free to give us a call and we would be happy to explain how physical therapy can help you after your surgery.


The Physical Therapy Clinic of Paris is staffed and equipped to assist with recovery from a multitude of sports-related injuries. Whether you are a student-athlete, college athlete, or recreational athlete, we are ready to provide the best rehabilitative services to meet your individual needs. Our services include both preventative programs as well as post-injury programs. PTCOP physical therapists work closely with physicians to develop the most individualized and comprehensive treatment programs to help you return to full form again.

PTCOP physical therapists have a long-standing relationship with a majority of the school districts in our area. For years, our therapists have assisted with game time sports medicine coverage to ensure our local school athletes are safe. PTCOP has also worked with Paris Junior College for a multitude of years to provide the best sports medicine coverage for our Dragons!


Dry needling is a skilled intervention utilizing a thin monofilament needle (like an acupuncture needle) that doesn’t inject anything into the skin. The needle is used to penetrate skin and underlying tissues to treat muscles, ligaments, tendons, fascia, scar tissue, and peripheral nerves to manage pain and encourage recovery from injuries. Out therapist is trained through the American Academy of Manipulative Therapy emphasizing a research based approach.

Research has shown the following benefits occur with needling:

Start or re-start the inflammatory response: Our body is great about healing itself but sometimes the process can get “stuck”. The natural process would be INFLAMMATION PHASE > REPAIR PHASE > REMODEL PHASE. For a variety of reason, the process can get chronically stuck in the REPAIR PHASE and never complete the cycle. Dry needling causes micro trauma to the tissues, increases blood flow and brings inflammatory cells to the area of treatment to help the body restart the healing process. While the body is busy healing on a cellular level, the physical therapist will encourage healing with your physical therapy exercises and other interventions.

Reset the muscle: It’s a complicated chemical process that occurs in your body that allows your brain to talk to your musles and create a muscle contraction. For example, every time you lift your arm to take a drink – hundreds of these processes are occurring. Naturally, with so many reactions occurring, there can be errors sometimes and a tiny part of the muscle contracts but is unable to relax. It gets stuck in the contracted position and cause what many peopel refer to as “knots in the muscle”. Dry needling triggers that process to reset and allows the muscle to relax.

Natural opioid release: The micro trauma to the tissues around the needle placement activates the body’s natural process to produce pain relieving chemicals in the body. Imagine taking a pill for pain- but instead of the pain relieving effects going throughout your body, it is specific to the area being treated.


Dysfunction of the pelvic floor muscles can refer to the hips and low back or remain in the pelvic region. The pelvic floor is responsible for many aspects of bowel, bladder, sexual health and pain down there. It’s rarely talked about but it affects many! This study, states that approximately 25% of U.S. women are affected by at least one pelvic floor disorder. Functions of the pelvic floor are controlled by muscles just like the rest of your body. Dysfunction of the pelvic floor muscles can affect: how/when you pee, how/when you poop, support of organs (bladder, uterus, intestines), core support during lifting, and pain with pelvic exams/tampon use/ sex/ etc.

Just because the pelvic floor is a body part that isn’t talked about with co-workers doesn’t mean it should be treated less importantly than Sally’s shoulder pain or Bob’s low back pain. Here at PTCOP, we understand that and want to provide the opportunity for education and treatment.  Pelvic floor physical therapy can help many disorders including: incontinence, urinary frequency, urinary urgency, pelvic pain at rest, pelvic pain with activities, constipation, interstitial cystitis, prolapse, vulvar pain, poster-hernia repair, proctalgia fugax, SI pain, groin pain, coccyx pain, endometriosis, pre/post partum, etc.